Back when photos were taken on film it was rated by ISO. For ex: 100iso would be for daytime and 500+ would be more suited to night or indoors. We still use the term ISO to measure digital sensors sensitivity to light but now we can change it in camera without having to change the film.
The consequence of increasing the sensitivity to light is the ability to take photos in darker situations at the cost of digital noise. Which presents itself as small colored dots.
If you are hand holding your camera and don’t take a photo with a fast enough shutter speed your photo will be blurry. A good rule of thumb is the mm of your lens is the minimum shutter speed you can shoot. On a 100mm lens you shouldn’t shoot any slower than 1/100th of a second 50mm 1/50 etc. Like any good rule of thumb, the rule can be broken. Resting the camera on a fence, leaning the camera against a wall or using a tripod will let you use much slower shutter speeds. If you choose to use long shutter times, stars can appear to leave a trail across the sky. Waterfalls can take on the appearance of tissue paper. Just remember whatever moves in your photo will be blurry.
Aperture is adjustable on manual lenses or on a camera body when you’re in manual mode. It opens to let in more light, yet oddly the smaller the aperture number the bigger the opening. If it was getting dark in the afternoon you might set your lens at f2.8 or the lowest number your lens can go. The consequence of opening the aperture to let in more light is your depth of field gets shallower and less of your photograph is in focus.
Photographers will shoot with a wide open aperture not just to let in more light but to creatively isolate the subject, letting everything else go out of focus.